Mix and flow of matter

The Many Uses of Fluids

Notes

Fluid :

Anything that has no fixed shape and can flow (usually a gas or liquid); takes the shape of its container.

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Fluids Make it Easier to Use Materials

  • A slurry is a mixture of water and solids ( ex. Dirt and water).  It is a form of a fluid.
  • Used in mining oil sands
  • Some solids are originally prepared as fluids (ex. Glass or steel).
  • Fluids have the ability to spread or flow and carry other materials.
  • Toothpaste contains powdered material, detergent, fluoride, binders, coloring, and flavoring

Useful Properties of Fluids

  • Fluids are involved in transporting, processing, and using materials.
  • Fluids can be used un different ways because of their properties
  • By understanding the properties of fluids, people can design technological devices that use these properties

Recall from grade 7 of classifying matter:

Solid :

Keeps its shape and keeps its total volume

Liquid :

Takes the shape of the container and keeps its total volume

Gas :

Takes the shape of its container and changes volume to fill its container


Pure Substances & Mixtures

 

Matter is divided up into two classifications

Pure Substances :

Made of only one kind of matter; cannot be separated into different substances. Ex. Gold, aluminum foil

Mixture :

Made up of combination of different substances in which the different substances are easy to see. Ex. Soil, cake


Mixtures can be broken up even further!

Mechanical mixture :

A mixture that you can see different substances that make up the mixture. Also called a heterogeneous mixture.

Soil, mixed vegetables

Solution :

A mixture of 2 or more pure substances that looks like one substance. Also called a homogenous mixture.

Pepsi, Copper Sulfate, Mio

Suspension :

A cloudy mixture in which droplets or tiny pieces of one substance is held within another substance; if left undisturbed, its parts will usually separate out. The particles settle slowly after mixing.

Muddy water, tomato juice, orange juice, salad dressing

Colloid :

A cloudy mixture in which droplets or tiny particles are too small to separate out, thus particles do not settle at all

Homogenized milk is a colloid of tiny cream droplets in whey, fog.


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How can we figure out if something is a pure substance or solutions?

  • Paper chromatography can be used to determine if fluids are pure substances or solutions.
    1. Filter paper is put in solution. 
    2. Pure substance- fluid travels up one level
    3. Solution - fluid travels up many level

Concentration & Solubility

 

Solution :

Dissolving one substance into another creates a solution

Solvent :

A substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution(ex. Water, known as the 'universal solvent').

Solute :

A substance that dissolves in a solvent to form a solution.

 

Measuring Concentration

Concentration :

The amount of solute (g or kg) dissolved in a specific amount of solvent (mL or L) in a solution; written as g/mL or kg/L. Means amount of solute/amount of solvent.

 

We use terms like 'concentrated' and 'diluted' to describe the solutions.

  • In a concentrated solution there are large amounts of solute in a solution 
  • In a diluted solution there are small amounts of solute in a solution
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Different types of concentrations

  • g/L
  • Parts per million (PPM) - Very small amount
  • Parts per billion (PPB) - Very very small amount

 

Comparing Concentrations

To compare concentrations, the volumes must be equal: 

  • Ex. 25g/100mL compared to 10g/50mL (Yay math!!)
  • Must be changed to 25g/100mL compared to 20g/100mL so the volumes are equal.

 Saturated and Unsaturated Solutions

 

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Unsaturated Solution :

A solution in which more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature

Saturated Solution :

 A solution in which NO more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature

  • Solutions do not have to be made up of only liquids (see. P. 29) (example: carbonated pop)

 

 

 

 

What happens if you add more solute to an unsaturated Solution?

  • Comes to a point where it becomes saturated
  • If you change the pressure, volume or temperature, it can become ‘super saturated’

Solubility :

The ability to dissolve; the mass of solute that can dissolve in a given amount at a given temperature.

Saturation Point :

The point at which NO more solute can be dissolved at a certain temperature (ex. See pg 28).


Factors Affecting Solubility

 Solubility depends on 3 factors.

  1. Type of solvent
  2. Type of solute
  3. Temperature 

Aqueous Solution :

When water is the solvent in the solution. Water is sometimes referred to as the “universal solvent” because it can dissolve so many things.

Solubility Changes with Temperature

  • For most substances, solubility increases as the temperature of the solvent increases
  • Ex. at 25 degrees   Salt- 36.2g/100ml water is saturated
  • Ex. at 100 degrees Salt- 39.2g/100ml water is saturated

Thermal Pollution

  • Decrease in solubility of gases have a serious effect on the environment
  • Water drawn from a lake as a coolant. When it goes back to the lake and it is not treated, it is warmer than it left

The Particle Model of Matter and the Behaviour of Mixtures.

Some history...

  • Ancient Greek Democritus said all matter was made of small, invisible, indivisible particles
  • Nobody believed him for 2000 years!
  • 1808- John Dalton believes him and makes his atomic theory

Particle Model of Matter :

A model that explains the behaviour of solids, liquids, and gases; it states that all matter is made up of tiny moving particles that attract each other and have spaces between them.

Four Main Points of the Particle Model of Matter:

1. All matter is made up of tiny particles.

  • Different substances are made up of different particles.
  • There are more particles in a given volume of solid than there are in the same volume of liquid or gas.
  • How big is a particle?  In one snowflake there are 1018 particles.

2. The tiny particles are always moving and vibrating.

  • For solids, the particles vibrate in one place.
  • For liquids, the particles slide around and over each other.
  • For gases – the particles move as far as the space they are in allows.

3. The particles in matter maybe attracted to each other or bonded together.

  • Some particle (like water) have more attraction to particles than others (like salt).

4. The particles have space between them.

  • Think like marbles & sand.

How the Particle Model Explains Mixing Substances.

  • If the 2 substances with different size particles are mixed together, the smaller particles will fill spaces between the larger particles.
  • The attraction of particles helps in dissolving.

3 factors affect how quickly a solute will dissolve in a solvent:

  1. Temperature – increasing the temperature causes the particles to move faster and bump into the solute particles faster.
  2. Surface Area – small pieces of dissolve more quickly than large pieces because there is a greater surface area where the solvent can make contact.
  3. Stirring – moves all the particles around, so the solvent particles bump into the solute particles.